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Popular Training Systems Adapted to Neurotype – Part 1: German Volume Training

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German Volume Training, or GVT (10 sets of 10 reps on an exercise), is one of the simplest yet most effective training approaches to build muscle. It has stood the test of time since versions of it have been used for over 50 years and has been recommended around the world by experts such as Charles Poliquin, the German National Weightlifting coaches, Vince Gironda, Gilles Cometti and Pierre Roy (former Canadian national weightlifting coach, trained the last Canadian Olympic male medalist) among others.

But here’s the thing: if I do it (and I have tried a few times) I will shoot myself or pick up dart throwing as a hobby. It just doesn’t fit my neurological profile. The reps are too high for my taste on big compound movements and the sessions are too repetitive.

I know plenty of guys who have gotten great results from this program, and I also know some who got weaker and flatter on it. That doesn’t mean that it’s not a solid program, it is in fact very good. As I mentioned earlier, it has been around for more than 50 years, and something doesn’t last that long if it’s ineffective. But the fact remains that it doesn’t fit all the neurotypes.

Some will get great gains from it (mostly type 2Bs), some will get better gains from this approach than from other typical bodybuilding programs (type 3 for example), some will stagnate after 2 weeks (if they can make it that far), and some will even lose strength and maybe muscle mass. It all depends on your type.

In this article, I will show you how to modify GVT to fit your own profile. Understand that in many cases it will not look like the actual GVT because it may not be as simple as changing the reps, tempo or rest intervals; sometimes it will require changing the structure. But in all cases, it will respect the basic principles of GVT as much as possible.

BASIC GVT PRINCIPLES

GVT is very straight forward. It’s basically doing 10 work sets of 10 reps with the same weight on 1-2 exercises per session. The 10×10 system has been recommended by many authorities, each having their own version of the system. For the sake of simplicity, I will stick to the most widely used version of the system, the GVT approach recommended by my first mentor Charles Poliquin (www.strengthsensei.com).

Charles’ system uses four exercises per session, two of them being done using the 10 x 10 loading scheme. And the two other ones using 3-4 sets of 6-12 reps depending on the goal and phase. Charles has published variations of the system but this is the original one. The exercises are done in antagonist pairs and 60-90 seconds of rest are used between exercises. The load used for the 10×10 exercises starts at 60% and you are only allowed to add weight when you can complete all 10 sets of 10 reps with the same weight. Charles also recommends utilizing a fairly slow tempo, especially on the eccentric where he normally recommends a 4s count.

A typical GVT session would look like this:

A1. Dumbbell bench press 10 x 10 / 4010 tempo

75 sec rest

A2. Chest supported T-bar row 10 x 10 / 4010 tempo

75 sec rest

B1. Dumbbell incline press 3 x 10-12 / 3020 tempo

60 sec rest

B2. Neutral grip pull-ups 3 x 10-12 / 3020 tempo

60 sec rest

GVT is based on the following principles:

  1. Maximum fiber fatigue through a high volume of the same pattern

By repeating the same movement over and over (100 total repetitions), you rapidly accumulate fatigue in the fibers recruited initially. So, with each set you must recruit more and more fibers. YES, the same effect (recruiting more fibers) can be accomplished by doing fewer sets of more exercises. The main difference is that by using the same movement, you are increasing the number of recruited fibers not because you are changing the movement but because you don’t have a choice! For example, if you do 3 sets of bench press and then move on to the incline press for 3 sets, you might involve new fibers before the first ones were fully fatigued. With GVT you recruit new fibers because the initial ones are too fatigued. The overall response is that for the same amount of work, you have created a more thorough level of fatigue on your fibers, and this might induce more hypertrophy.

  1. Neurological gains from repeating the same movement frequently

By repeating the same movement over and over you get more practice which can help you improve the neurological factors involved in lifting the weights. So even though traditional GVT is not a strength program, it can contribute to making you stronger in the long run by improving neural efficiency on the lifts you are using. Specifically, you will improve inter and intramuscular coordination as well as technique. One caveat though, is that if you practice a faulty technique you can also rapidly engrain bad motor patterns. This is why it is important to emphasize proper lifting form when using an approach like GVT. Some people allow themselves to get sloppy, especially on the later sets, just so that they can complete the reps. This is a big mistake with this training system.

  1. The use of high yield exercises

The original GVT uses mostly big multi-joint movements for the 10×10 exercises, the exception being using leg curls paired with squats (instead of a RDL for example). This is understandable because doing 10×10 of alternating squats and deadlifts would destroy your lower back fast.

  1. Using antagonist pairings (at least if you use the most popular version of GVT)

Not all 10×10 systems use antagonist pairings (I have even seen a circuit of 6 exercises done with a 10×10 scheme!) but we are focusing on the most popular one here. Charles is big on antagonist pairing because it does seem to provide a neurological advantage, allowing you to perform better (lift more weight). However, not all neurotypes will be potentiated with antagonist pairings. While it can be extremely effective for some neuro-types (1B, 2A and 2B), it won’t be optimal for others (1A and 3).

To me, the most important element of GVT/10×10 is the high number of repetitions of the same exercise. This is what causes the high muscle fiber fatigue. That fatigue will be superior than recruiting more fibers via changing exercises because in the latter case you change fiber recruitment not because you have fully fatigued the initial muscle fibers but because you are doing a different movement. As such, you will impose some fatigue on more muscle fibers but you might not reach a high enough level of fatigue in the recruited fibers to get maximum growth. With GVT you are recruiting more fibers because you don’t have a choice: the initial fibers have too much fatigue to be able to do the job.

Note that I designed a system based on the same basic principle: The layer system.  Two of its variations can be found herehttps://www.t-nation.com/workouts/layer-system and here: https://thibarmy.com/boost-lift-fast-strength-layers/

ADAPTING GVT TO YOUR NEUROTYPE

If you are a Type 1A the traditional GVT will not be adequate for you at all. Type 1A are built for high frequency, very intense but short workouts. They are not well suited for antagonistic pairing, doing better when they can do all sets of an exercise in a row and requiring more rest between sets to avoid releasing too much adrenalin.

For a Type 1A, GVT uses too much volume, not enough intensity, too little frequency, and antagonist pairings which are not adequate. In other words, not a single parameter of GVT is adequate for a type 1A! Well, the only thing that they can do is the repetitiveness; they can handle doing few exercises in a session if it stimulates their nervous system.

We cannot apply GVT as is for Type 1As. As a matter of fact, it will even be hard to modify it enough to make it palatable/effective for a Type 1A. Instead, we need to simply apply the most important principle of GVT: doing a high number of repetitions of the same exercise. However, we will need to increase the load, which means decreasing the volume.

For a Type 1A, the equivalent of GVT would be Giant clusters. In a Giant cluster, the goal is to do a total number of reps with a given weight. While you should get to that number as fast as possible, the smarter strategy (especially for a Type 1A) is to stop about 2 or 3 reps short of failure on all the micro sets and take a decent amount of rest between sets… up to 60-75 seconds (which seems short for a Type 1A, but since they are not going to failure it will be fine).

I recommend the following parameters:

Starting Intensity: 85% of your max

Volume: 30 total reps

Tempo: Slow eccentric (4-5 seconds) and normal concentric

Progression key: When you can complete the 30 reps in less than 10 minutes you add 10lbs for your next session.

You would do two such lifts in a workout and maybe a third, minor exercise to fix a weak point in one of the two main lifts of the day. This third exercise would be done for 3 sets of 6-8 reps. Ideally, a Type 1A would train 6 days a week using a push/pull/leg split. So, each lift would be done twice times per week for a weekly volume of 60 reps.

The three workouts might look like this:

DAYS 1 & 4 – PUSHING

A. Bench press

30 total reps with 85% (good strategy is sets of 3-4 reps)

4-5 sec eccentric

B. Military press

30 total reps with 85% (good strategy is sets of 3-4 reps)

4-5 sec eccentric

C. Top half bench press from pins

3 sets of 6-8 reps

DAYS 2 & 5 – PULLING

A. Chest-supported T-bar row

30 total reps with 85% (good strategy is sets of 3-4 reps)

Hold peak contraction 2 sec, controlled but not slow eccentric (2-3 sec)

B. Neutral grip pull-ups

30 total reps with 85% (good strategy is sets of 3-4 reps)

Hold peak contraction 2 sec, controlled but not slow eccentric (2-3 sec)

C. Barbell curl

3 sets of 6-8 reps

 

DAYS 3 & 6 – LOWER BODY

A. Front squat

30 total reps with 85% (good strategy is sets of 3-4 reps)

4-5 sec eccentric

B. Deadlift

30 total reps with 85% (good strategy is sets of 3-4 reps)

3 sec eccentric

C. Leg curl

3 sets of 6-8 reps

If a Type 1A can only train 5 days a week I would simply roll through the workouts. For example:

Week 1

Monday: Push

Tuesday: Pull

Wednesday: Legs

Thursday: OFF

Friday: Push

Saturday: Pull

Sunday: OFF

Week 2

Monday: Legs

Tuesday: Push

Wednesday: Pull

Thursday: OFF

Friday: Legs

Saturday: Push

Sunday: OFF

Etc.

If the individual can only train 4 days a week, I would switch to a push+quads / pull+posterior chain split. This would mean replacing the assistance exercise by a lower body exercise:

DAYS 1 & 3 – PUSHING / QUADS

A. Front squat

30 total reps with 85% (good strategy is sets of 3-4 reps)

4-5 sec eccentric

B. Bench press

30 total reps with 85% (good strategy is sets of 3-4 reps)

4-5 sec eccentric

C. Military press

30 total reps with 85% (good strategy is sets of 3-4 reps)

4-5 sec eccentric

DAYS 2 & 4 – PULLING / POSTERIOR CHAIN

A. Deadlift

30 total reps with 85% (good strategy is sets of 3-4 reps)

3 sec eccentric

B. Chest-supported T-bar row

30 total reps with 85% (good strategy is sets of 3-4 reps)

Hold peak contraction 2 sec, controlled but not slow eccentric (2-3 sec)

C. Neutral grip pull-ups

30 total reps with 85% (good strategy is sets of 3-4 reps)

Hold peak contraction 2 sec, controlled but not slow eccentric (2-3 sec)

If you are a Type 1B, GVT is also far from what your neurotype does best on, but some elements are applicable:

GVT elements NOT optimal for type 1B

  1. Intensity (1B requires heavier loads than 60%)
  2. High reps on big lifts (the most a 1B should do on a big lift is 5-6 reps per set)
  3. Slow tempo (1Bs need to be able to utilize the stretch reflex and trying to accelerate the concentric)
  4. Repetitiveness; always doing the same thing

GVT elements adequate for Type 1B

  1. Antagonist pairings
  2. Fast pace
  3. Focus on big compound lifts

With a Type 1B, we need to decrease the reps per set to 3-5 reps (you will see how we do that in a moment) and also add an element of variation. The way I recommend doing it is both by utilising different methods/contraction types and using different grips/stances.

1Bs should also use the following repetition type:

Eccentric: the first 2/3 of the eccentric range of motion is under control (not slow) and on the last 1/3 they accelerate downward to stimulate the stretch reflex.

Turnaround: this is where you switch from eccentric to concentric. For a Type 1B this is the most important phase: it is where maximum force should be applied. The objective is to be violently explosive at the turnaround point.

Concentric: you try to accelerate as much as you can

The best workout split for a 1B is lift-specific and you pair one main lift with a minor antagonist exercise. You will then do a second antagonist pair for 3 sets of 6-8 reps each.

In an ideal world, they would train five days a week. Doing:

Bench press

Squat

Pull

Overhead press

Hinge

Since pulling is key, it will also be trained on the two pressing days.

In the main lift of the day, a Type 1B will do 10 sets of 5 reps.

Sets 1-3: using a light load, around 60%, and your regular grip/stance focusing on being as violently explosive as possible. If you are more advanced you can use a different method for these first three sets, here are three suggestions:

ADVANCED METHOD 1 (chains/bands): you can use a barbell weight of around 50% and an added 25% in the form of chains or band resistance.

ADVANCED METHOD 2 (reactive reps): you can use reactive repetitions: you try to accelerate as much as possible during the eccentric, abruptly stop about 1″ from the bottom position and explode up violently. Use 50-60%.

ADVANCED METHOD 3 (double bounce): do your regular eccentric, catch a powerful stretch reflex so that the bar will go up about 1/3 of the ROM only using the rebound, bring it back down FAST and then explode up to complete the lift. This is one rep. Use 50-60%.

Sets 4-6: using a heavier weight, around 70-75% of the main lift BUT using a weaker grip or stance (e.g. closer grip on the bench)

Sets 7-10: using a heavier weight (80-85%) and your normal grip/stance

For the minor antagonist done with the main lift you will do 10 sets of 6-8 reps.

The workouts could look like this:

DAY 1 – BENCH PRESS

A1. Bench press

3 sets @ 60% very explosive regular bench grip

3 sets @ 70-75% with slightly closer grip

4 sets @ 80-85% with regular bench grip

90 sec rest

A2. Face pull

10 sets of 6-8 reps

90 sec of rest

B1. Incline DB press

3 sets of 6-8 reps

75 sec of rest

B2. Bent over lateral raises (or rear delts machine)

3 sets of 8-10 reps

75 sec of rest

DAY 2 – SQUAT

A1. Back squat

3 sets @ 60% very explosive regular stance

3 sets @ 70-75% with slightly closer (or wider*) stance

4 sets @ 80-85% with regular stance

* If you are quads dominant use a wider stance, if you are glutes dominant use a narrower stance

90 sec of rest

A2. Leg curl

10 set of 6-8 reps

90 sec of rest

B1. Bulgarian split squat

3 sets of 6-8 reps per leg

75 sec of rest

B2. Single leg curl

3 sets of 6-8 reps per leg

75 sec of rest

DAY 3 – PULL

A1. Chest-supported T-bar row

3 sets @ 60% very explosive with regular grip (normally parallel/neutral)

3 sets @ 70-75% with weaker grip (normally wider pronated)

4 sets @ 80-85% with regular grip

90 sec of rest

A2. Lying DB triceps extension

10 x 6-8 reps

90 sec of rest

B1. Supinated pull-ups

3 sets of 6-8 reps

75 sec of rest

B2. Rope triceps pressdown

3 sets of 8-10 reps

75 sec of rest

DAY 4 – OVERHEAD PRESS

A1. Military press

3 sets @ 60% very explosive regular grip

3 sets @ 70-75% with slightly closer grip

4 sets @ 80-85% with regular grip

90 sec rest

A2. Preacher curl

10 sets of 6-8 reps

90 sec of rest

B1. Arnold press

3 sets of 6-8 reps

75 sec of rest

B2. DB shrugs

3 sets of 8-10 reps

75 sec of rest

DAY 5 – HINGE

A1. Romanian deadlift

3 sets @ 60% very explosive regular grip

3 sets @ 70-75% with snatch grip

4 sets @ 80-85% with regular grip

90 sec rest

A2. Leg extension

10 sets of 6-8 reps

90 sec of rest

B1. Glute-ham raise OR Reverse-hyper OR back extension

3 sets of 6-8 reps

75 sec of rest

B2. Standing calves raise

3 sets of 12-15 reps

75 sec of rest

If you are a Type 2A, everything works but nothing works for a long time. In theory, you can use the traditional GVT program, BUT Type 2A need the most variety, so doing 10 sets of the same exercises will be mind-numbing and will lead to a loss of motivation.

Type 2A need a lot of variation especially in the form of methods or ways to contract a muscle. In that regard, they can combine GVT and the layer system (which are based on the same principle). What I would recommend for a Type 2A is a multi-methods GVT: Doing 3-4 sets of three different methods on the same exercise. This will keep the 2A interested and motivated.

I would recommend using these three methods:

Layer 1 – Working up to a 6RM in 4 sets (starting at around 70%)

Layer 2 – Using 90% of your 6RM do 3 rest/pause sets of 10 total reps. For example, you could do 6 reps / rest 15 sec / 4 reps … or 6 reps / rest 15 sec / 2 reps / rest 15 sec / 2 reps, or any other mix you want. Go close to, or to failure on the first micro sets then take 1-2 more sets to complete your 10 reps

Layer 3 – Using around 60-70% of your 6RM do 3 sets of 8-12 reps (shoot for 10, but if you only get 8 that’s fine and if after 10 you have room for more, please do so) using a slow eccentric tempo (5010 for example).

I would recommend a schedule similar to the 1B where you train 5 days a week pairing a major lift with a movement for a smaller antagonist.

The workouts could look like this:

DAY 1 – BENCH PRESS

A1. Bench press

4 sets Ramping from 70% to a 6RM (around 85%)

3 sets of 10 rest/pause reps @ 90% of 6RM

3 sets of 10 reps @ 60-70% of 6RM using a slow eccentric tempo

90 sec rest

A2. Face pull

4 sets Ramping from 70% to a 6RM (around 85%)

3 sets of 10 rest/pause reps @ 90% of 6RM

3 sets of 10 reps @ 60-70% of 6RM using 3 sec iso hold at peak contraction

90 sec of rest

B1. Incline DB press

3 sets of rest/pause 6 initial reps to/close to failure / rest 15 sec / 3 more reps

75 sec of rest

B2. Bent over lateral raises (or rear delts machine)

3 sets of 8-10 reps with slow tempo

3030

75 sec of rest

DAY 2 – SQUAT

A1. Back squat

4 sets Ramping from 70% to a 6RM (around 85%)

3 sets of 10 rest/pause reps @ 90% of 6RM

3 sets of 10 reps @ 60-70% of 6RM using a slow eccentric tempo

90 sec of rest

A2. Leg curl

4 sets Ramping from 70% to a 6RM (around 85%)

3 sets of 10 rest/pause reps @ 90% of 6RM

3 sets of 10 reps @ 60-70% of 6RM using a slow eccentric tempo

90 sec of rest

B1. Bulgarian split squat

3 sets of 6-8 reps per leg with slow tempo

3030

75 sec of rest

B2. Single leg curl

3 sets of 6-8 reps per leg with slow eccentric

5010

75 sec of rest

DAY 3 – PULL

A1. Chest-supported T-bar row

4 sets Ramping from 70% to a 6RM (around 85%)

3 sets of 10 rest/pause reps @ 90% of 6RM

3 sets of 10 reps @ 60-70% of 6RM adding a 3 sec iso hold at peak contraction

90 sec of rest

A2. Lying DB triceps extension

4 sets Ramping from 70% to a 6RM (around 85%)

3 sets of 10 rest/pause reps @ 90% of 6RM

3 sets of 10 reps @ 60-70% of 6RM using a slow eccentric tempo

90 sec of rest

B1. Supinated pull-ups

3 sets of rest/pause 6 initial reps to/close to failure / rest 15 sec / 3 more reps

75 sec of rest

B2. Rope triceps pressdown

3 sets of rest/pause 6 initial reps to/close to failure / rest 15 sec / 3 more reps

75 sec of rest

DAY 4 – OVERHEAD PRESS

A1. Military press

4 sets Ramping from 70% to a 6RM (around 85%)

3 sets of 10 rest/pause reps @ 90% of 6RM

3 sets of 10 reps @ 60-70% of 6RM using a slow eccentric tempo

90 sec rest

A2. Preacher curl

4 sets Ramping from 70% to a 6RM (around 85%)

3 sets of 10 rest/pause reps @ 90% of 6RM

3 sets of 10 reps @ 60-70% of 6RM using a slow eccentric tempo

90 sec of rest

B1. Arnold press

3 sets of rest/pause 6 initial reps to/close to failure / rest 15 sec / 3 more reps

75 sec of rest

B2. DB shrugs

3 sets of 8-10 reps

Hold peak contraction 2-3 sec per rep

75 sec of rest

DAY 5 – HINGE

A1. Romanian deadlift

4 sets Ramping from 70% to a 6RM (around 85%)

3 sets of 10 rest/pause reps @ 90% of 6RM

3 sets of 10 reps @ 60-70% of 6RM using a slow eccentric tempo

90 sec rest

A2. Leg extension

4 sets Ramping from 70% to a 6RM (around 85%)

3 sets of 10 rest/pause reps @ 90% of 6RM

3 sets of 10 reps @ 60-70% of 6RM using a slow eccentric tempo

90 sec of rest

B1. Glute-ham raise OR Reverse-hyper OR back extension

3 sets of rest/pause 6 initial reps to/close to failure / rest 15 sec / 3 more reps

75 sec of rest

B2. Standing calves raise

3 sets of 12-15 reps

Hold stretch & peak for 2 sec

75 sec of rest

GVT is actually a very solid program for a Type 2B  and they can easily do it as originally planned with great results.

As for those of you who are Type 3, the basic premise of GVT is very well suited to you.  Doing few exercises per session and doing a lot of higher rep sets on the basic lifts fits your profile.

There are a few elements that I would change from the original plan. The first thing is that I would get rid of the antagonist pairings: Type 3 do better when they can focus on a single exercise at a time. I would also increase the rest intervals, because energetically speaking, Type 3 can train with very short rest intervals but it might reduce their performance and gains. Shorter rest intervals will increase adrenalin too much which will increase their anxiety (they already have too much of it) which will increase muscle tightness, especially in the flexor muscles. Further, it might jack up cortisol too much since they have a tendency to overproduce it. They will do better on slightly longer rest intervals, and those rest intervals should be active in that they will get better results from doing SMR techniques (foam rolling, lacrosse ball) or light mobility work (they are the only profile who should do that).

They cannot train 5-6 days a week. Normally we are talking 3-4 days per week at most. As such, I recommend either a lower/upper body split (4 days a week) or a lower/upper/whole body split if they hit the gym three times per week.

Here’s what the workouts would look like in both cases:

OPTION 1 – 4 DAYS A WEEK

DAY 1 – LOWER BODY 1

A. Front squat

10 x 10 @ 60%

4020 tempo (approximation)

2 min of rest between sets

B. Leg curl

10 x 10 @ 60%

4020 tempo (approximation)

2 min of rest between sets

C. Reverse hyper OR glute-ham raise

3 x 12-15

2 min of rest

DAY 2 – UPPER BODY 1

A. Bench press

10 x 10 @ 60%

4020 tempo (approximation)

2 min of rest between sets

B. Chest-supported T-bar row

10 x 10 @ 60%

Hold peak contraction 2 sec per rep

2 min of rest between sets

C. Preacher curl

3 x 12-15 with slow tempo

3030

2 min of rest

DAY 3 – LOWER BODY 2

A. Romanian deadlift

10 x 10 @ 60%

4020 tempo (approximation)

2 min of rest between sets

B. Leg press OR machine hack squat

10 x 10 @ 60%

4020 tempo (approximation)

2 min of rest between sets

C. Bulgarian split squat

3 x 12-15 / leg with slow tempo

3030

2 min of rest

DAY 4 – UPPER BODY 2

A. Military press

10 x 10 @ 60%

4020 tempo (approximation)

2 min of rest between sets

B. Lat pulldown or neutral grip pull-ups

10 x 10 @ 60%

Hold peak contraction 2 sec per rep

2 min of rest between sets

C. Lying DB triceps extensions

3 x 12-15 with slow eccentric

5010

2 min of rest

OPTION 2 – 3 DAYS A WEEK

DAY 1 – LOWER BODY 1

A. Front squat

10 x 10 @ 60%

4020 tempo (approximation)

2 min of rest between sets

B. Leg curl

10 x 10 @ 60%

4020 tempo (approximation)

2 min of rest between sets

C. Reverse hyper OR glute-ham raise

3 x 12-15

2 min of rest

DAY 2 – UPPER BODY 1

A. Bench press

10 x 10 @ 60%

4020 tempo (approximation)

2 min of rest between sets

B. Chest-supported T-bar row

10 x 10 @ 60%

Hold peak contraction 2 sec per rep

2 min of rest between sets

C. Preacher curl

3 x 12-15 with slow tempo

3030

2 min of rest

DAY 3 – WHOLE BODY

A. Romanian deadlift

10 x 10 @ 60%

4020 tempo (approximation)

2 min of rest between sets

B. Military press

10 x 10 @ 60%

4020 tempo (approximation)

2 min of rest between sets

C. Lat pulldown or neutral grip pull-ups

10 x 10 @ 60%

Hold peak contraction 2 sec per rep

2 min of rest between sets 

Conclusion

There is no doubt that German Volume Training is formidably effective for building muscle, but there is nothing “mystical” or “magical” in doing 10 sets of 10 reps on an exercise. It’s not like the gain fairy bestows hugedom on you when you hit those numbers! You have to understand why it works: because you are doing a large amount of work on the same exercise maximizes muscle fiber fatigue which will lead to more growth. If you understand that principle as well as the difference between the neurotypes, you can adapt this great system to any type of individual. This will lead to better growth and more motivation.

-CT

 

Christian Thibaudeau

Written by Christian Thibaudeau

Christian Thibaudeau has been involved in the business of training for over the last 16 years. During this period, he worked with athletes from 28 different sports. He has been “Head Strength Coach” for the Central Institute for Human Performance (of…